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Adaptation: an approach for end-to-end transformation
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Reinvent Management for the 21st Century
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Jean-Baptiste Waldner is the author of several books relating to digital technology and their incidence on new ways to do business, freeing the mind of the workers and improving the performance of the company:

Nearly a century ago, engineer Frederick W Taylor conducted time-and-motion studies of factory workers to determine the most efficient way to work. In the 21st century, fewer western countries workers toil in factories—and many of us sit in front of computer screens, trying desperately to break away from answering e-mails to get our real work done...



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The notion of new organizational forms signals that economic organization is not static, but changes through organizational innovation. It refers to new modes of governing transactions, particularly with respect to the internal organization of firms and to how firms structure dealings with other firms. Although very considerable advances have been made over the last decades with respect to economic organization issues in general, it is also fair to say that understanding the dynamics of economic organization is an extraordinarily complicated undertaking on which little work so far exists. Even less work exists from an organizational economics perspective on new organizational forms. Accordingly, the papers collected in this special issue only represent a first stab at complicated issues. Nevertheless, considered collectively they do suggest a programme of sorts for research in new organizational economics, specifically that organizational economics provides a first, working definition of the notion of new organizational forms, (2) organizational economics is useful for explicating their workings and, hence, the reasons why they are adopted, the understanding of new organizational forms is based on variations on familiar organizational economics explanations of the internal organization and boundaries of firms, but the phenomenon of new organizational forms indicate that organizational economics is somewhat deficient with respect to its treatment of dynamics, knowledge, and, perhaps, motivation. Accordingly, the papers in this issue are offered in the hope that they help stimulate more research on an exciting subject. References Aoki, M. and Dore, R., The Japanese Firm: Sources of Competitive Strength. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Bartlett, C. A. and Ghoshal, S., Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1989. Bowman, E. H. and Singh, H., ª Corporate Restructuring: Reconfiguring the Firm,º Strategic Management Journal, 1993, 14 pp. 5± 14. Capelli, P. and Neumark, D., ª Do `High-Performance’ Work Practices Improve Establishment-Level Outcomes?º , Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 2001, 54(4) pp. 737± 75. Crowston, K., ª An Approach to Evolving Novel Organizational Forms,º Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 1996, 2 pp. 29± 47. Daft, Richard and Lewin, Arie, ª Where Are the Theories of the `New’ Organizational Forms?,º Organization Science, 1993, 4, pp. i± iv. DeSanctis, G. and Poole, M. S., ª Transitions in Teamwork in New Organizational Formsº , in Markovsky, B. and Lovaglia, M.J. and L. Troyer, eds., Advances in Group Processes, 14 Greenwich, Conn. and London: JAI Press, 1997, pp. 157± 76. Godard, J. ª High Performance and the Transformation of Work? The Implications of Alternative Work Practices for the Experience and Outcomes of Work,º Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 2001, 54 pp. 776± 805. Halal, W.E., The New Management: Bringing Democracy and Markets Inside Organizations. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1998. Hedlund, G., ª The Hypermodern MNC ± A Hierachy?º Human Resource Management, 1986, 21 pp. 9± 35. HolmstroÈ m, B. and Roberts, J., ª The Boundaries at the Firm Revisited,º Journal of Economic Perspectives, 1998, 12 pp. 73± 94. 8 N. J. Foss Ichniowski, C., Kochan, T.A., Levine, D., Olson, C., and Strauss, G., ªWhat Works at Work: Overview and Assessment,º Industrial Relations, 1996, 35 pp. 299± 333. Lawler, E.E.I, Mohrman, S.A., and Ledfor, G.R., Creating High Performance Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995. Mendelson, H. and Pillai, R.R., ª Information Age Organizations, Dynamics, and Performance,º Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 1999, 38 pp. 253± 281. Miles, Raymond E., Snow, C.C., Mathews, J.A., Miles, G. and Coleman, H.J., Jr., ª Organizing in the Knowledge Age: Anticipating the Cellular Form,º Academy of Management Executive, 1997, 11 pp. 7± 20. Rajan, R.G. and Zingales, L. ª The Governance of the New Enterprise,º unpublished manuscript, 1998. Tapscott, D., ed., Creating Value in the Network Economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999. Williamson, O.E., The Mechanisms of Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.